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Population of Tokyo

Population Summary

As of October 1, 2020, the population of Tokyo is estimated to be 14.065 million, or about 11.1% of Japan's total population, and it has the largest population among all the 47 prefectures.

At 2,194 square kilometers, the area of Tokyo is 0.6% of the total area of Japan. With a population density of 6,410 persons per square kilometer, Tokyo is the most densely populated prefecture in Japan.

The ward area is home to 9.745 million persons, the Tama area, 4.296 million, and the Islands, 24,000.

Tokyo has 7.219 million households, with an average 1.95 persons per household. The number of foreign residents according to the basic resident register is 539,000 as of October 1, 2020.

Trends in Population of Tokyo

Trends in Population by Three Age Groups

Source: Statistics Division, Bureau of General Affairs, TMG;“Tokyo Statistical Yearbook,” “(Estimated) Population of Tokyo Metropolis”

Population Change

The population migration between Tokyo and other prefectures in 2019 showed 464,000 persons moving into Tokyo while 383,000 persons moved out, for a net social increase of 81,000 persons.

With the exception of 1984 and 1985, there was a prevailing trend of out-migration exceeding in-migration since 1967, until a net social increase was seen for the first time in 12 years in 1997. 2019 again showed a net increase.

Looking at the migration between Tokyo and the three adjacent prefectures (Saitama, Chiba, and Kanagawa prefectures), 210,000 people came into Tokyo while 212,000 moved out.

Looking at the natural population change, following the peak net natural increase of 182,000 in 1968, Tokyo experienced a slowing of population growth and marked its first natural decline in 2012. During 2019, there was a net natural decrease of 16,000, with about 106,000 births and 122,000 deaths.

Demographic Composition by Age

According to the National Census, as of October 1, 2015, the population of Tokyo was 13.515 million (Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications). This number was divided into three age categories: child population (ages 0 - 14) at 1.518 million; the working-age population (ages 15 - 64) at 8.734 million; and the aged population (ages 65 and over) at 3.006 million. These figures are 11.5%, 65.9% and 22.7%, respectively, of the overall population.

The percentage of aged persons exceeded the United Nations standard of 14% for an “aged society” in 1998, and Tokyo is now a “super-aged society,” with senior citizens making up 21% or more of the population.

Labor Force Population

As of October 1, 2015, the population aged 15 years and older was 11.740 million persons, of whom 5.859 million were employed and 235,000 fully unemployed within a total labor force population of 6.094 million persons.

Demographic Composition by Industry

According to the National Census of 2015, when employed persons were viewed by the three industrial groups, 23,000 persons (0.4%) were employed in the primary industry of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries; 0.898 million (15.3%) in the secondary industry of mining, construction, and manufacturing; and 4.226 million (72.1%) in the tertiary industry of commerce, transportation, communication, and services.

Demographic Composition by Occupation

According to the National Census of 2015, when employed persons were viewed by the four employment groups, 23,000 persons (0.4%) were employed in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries; 1.008 million (17.2%) in manufacturing and transportation-related occupations; 1.501 million (25.6%) in sales and services; and 2.662 million (45.4%) in clerical, technical, and management occupations.

Daytime and Nighttime Population

The National Census in 2015 lists the daytime population of Tokyo as 15.92 million people, which is 2.405 million more than the nighttime population figure of 13.515 million. This makes the daytime population about 1.18 times more than that of the nighttime population; the daytime population index is 117.8 against the nighttime population taken at 100. This difference is caused by the population of commuting workers and students, constituting a daytime influx from mainly the three neighboring prefectures of Saitama, Chiba, and Kanagawa.

The daytime population, broken down by area, shows 12.034 million in the ward area, 3.86 million in the Tama area, and 27,000 persons in the islands. The daytime population indices for these three areas are 129.8, 91.5, and 102.9, respectively, and the ward figure is noticeably higher. Remarkably, the three central wards—Chiyoda, Chuo and Minato—have an index of 542.5 (a nighttime population of 443,000 persons and a daytime population of 2.402 million), making their daytime population more than five times the nighttime population.

Changes in the metropolis since 1965 show that in the period up to 2015, while the nighttime population increased by 2.646 million (24.3%), the daytime population had a much greater increase of 4.169 million (35.5%), bringing about a large imbalance.

Changes in Population Composition by Three Age Groups

Changes in Population Composition by Three Age Groups

As the denominator (total population) from 1990 to 2005 used to calculate the percentages includes persons of unknown age, totals do not reach 100%.

Changes in Tokyo's Daytime and Nighttime Populations

Changes in Tokyo's Daytime and Nighttime Populations

Both daytime and nighttime populations exclude persons whose ages are unknown.
Source: Statistics Division, Bureau of General Affairs, TMG; “Daytime Population in Tokyo”

Trends in Breakdown of Employed Persons by Three Industry Sectors

Trends in Breakdown of Employed Persons by Three Industry Sectors

Source: Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; “Population Census”

Population Commuting into Tokyo Metropolis
by Prefecture (2015)

Population Commuting into Tokyo Metropolis by Prefecture (2015)

The figures indicate the number of workers who live in neighboring prefectures and commute into Tokyo.
Source: Statistics Division, Bureau of General Affairs, TMG; “Tokyo's Daytime Population”

Proportion of Workers in Tokyo Metropolis by Place of Residence (2015)

Proportion of Workers in Tokyo Metropolis by Place of Residence (2015)

Source: Statistics Division, Bureau of General Affairs, TMG; “Tokyo's Daytime Population”

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